Sabbatical reading

Whilst I’m in Vienna, I’m hoping to catch on my reading, both for work and for fun. I’ll try to keep an updated list here:

Work

  • Burning Planet: The Story of Fire Through Time, by Andrew Scott.
    • Really nice book covering development of fire on Earth with a focus on charcoal in the geological record. This will be a recommended reading as part of my new Pyrogeography course in 2018/19.
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas Kuhn.
    • A classic text on the history of science. I’ve never really studied the history of science so will be interesting attempting this book.
  • An Introduction to Systematic Reviews, by David Gough, Sandy Oliver, and James Thomas
  • Introduction to Meta-Analysis, by Michael Borenstein, Larry Hedge, Julian Higgins, Hannah Rothstein
    • As I’m reading up on systematic reviews, I’d also like to learn more about quantitative analysis of the literature. I expect it’s not going to be an easy read!
  • Individual-based Modeling and Ecology, by Volker Grimm and Steven Railsback
    • As part of the Indonesia wildfire project I’m part of, colleagues at Universitas Gadjah Mada are developing agent-based models to help predict the complex interaction people and their environments in the context of wildfires.

Fun

  • The Eyre Affair, by Jasper Fforde – one of my all time favourite books but its been far too long since reading it last.  Finished this one last week. I’ll be bringing the rest of the series back with my when I go back to the UK in mid-July.
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Evening weisswein spritzer in local vineyard.

  • The Shortest History of Germany, by James Hawes.
    • Spotted this in Vienna airport bookshop the other week and thought I should swot up on Germanic history.
  • What We Owe to Each Other, by T. M. Scanlon
    • A potentially heavy book on moral philosophy might seem an odd choice for the ‘fun’ section, but this is heavily referenced in the very funny TV show ‘The Good Place‘, so I thought I’d see what all the fuss is about.
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First few weeks in Vienna…the everyday

I’ve now been in Vienna for two weeks (though it seems longer!) and I’m slowly settling into new rhythms. Over the coming months I’m going to be engaged in new research and teaching and will be blogging about these, but I thought the first of my entries in Vienna should be about the everyday things.

I’m living in an apartment of the 19th district of Vienna up near the Wienerwald (Vienna woods) and the Danube in a rather nice old building close to the Hueriger taverns and vineyards. Not a bad place to be! Its about 15 minutes by tram from home to the office. Its quite relaxing in the morning (assuming its not full of school kids!). Getting around town is amazingly easy and efficient via tram or U-Bahn. I’ve always loved the ease of the Vienna underground but I’m now building a love of the tram system, especially the older trams that rattle around some of the bends in the tracks!

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Local vineyards close to home

I’ve been fairly busy during the weeks getting sorted at the University, including the international trouble of all new starters – getting their IT account set up! There is something slightly reassuring that every University I’ve ever been at has their own quirks when it comes to HR and IT.  I’m now all set up, including with my own Austrian social security number, which makes this all this very grown-up.

The evenings and weekends have been spent exploring the city or visiting the big touristy places such as the Natural History Museum (where I now have a year-long pass). I’m sure over time I’ll start to act as a local and start cursing at tourist parties gathering at road crossings and generally getting in the way!

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Natural History Museum

I’ve also started to search out some smaller prizes around town and one of my favourites so far is Shakespeare and Company booksellers in the 1st district. Though not related to the Shakespeare and Co in Paris, it is a lovely rabbit warren of rooms with books in both German and English. This is where I was able to pick up a copy of one of my all time favourite books – The Eyre Affair by Jasper Fforde.

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Shakespeare and Company bookshop, Sterngasse 2

Managed to put this book to good use in a local vineyard last weekend!

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Evening weisswein spritzer in local vineyard.

The latest foray into Viennese culture has been coffee. Now I’m not normally a coffee drinker and others will attest that I’m a big tea drinker, so coffee is not a normal part of my everyday. Maybe it is something about different water, lack of decent tea bags (though I did brings a store of Twinnings Everyday) or more likely how milk is different on the continent, that I only really touch coffee when overseas. Its more reliable than a potentially disappointing cup of tea! So I’m embracing my inner coffee fiend and exploring some of the Viennese coffee houses to find the perfect place to work and drink/eat. Today I’m writing this entry in The Coffee Pirates near to the main University of Vienna campus. Working in a coffee shop may be a familiar activity to some of my Geography colleagues back in Manchester, but its a new things for me. But a change of scenery can be a good thing. Today I’ve manged to shift a paper review I’ve had for a while and I’m going to move onto paper revisions for a colleague. Maybe this is a vision of things to come?

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Coffee house working

 

Indonesian fire forecasting

Sometimes an email pops into your inbox that looks relevant but you don’t necessarily think much of it, but it later becomes the starting point for a journey. Well this happened to me back in July 2016.

A colleague of mine dropped me a note saying would I like to discuss ideas with a colleague of a colleague about wildfire research in Indonesia. So I thought to myself “why not?”. Well conversations developed and brought in more people, and before I knew it I was helping to pull together an ambitious programme of work forecasting wildfire occurrence in Indonesia. Not something I’d really thought about before, but as it developed, the more I enjoyed writing the work, especially the section on impact and ensuring the work met ODA requirements.

Ideally we’d all like a long lead-in time to draft project proposals, but like many before (and I’m sure after) it was a busy few weeks drafting the proposal. This was complicated by the number of different time zones the team were in – I think we had at least 5 time zones at any one point, but it did mean we potentially had at least one person working on it non-stop!

It was submitted by the deadline in August 2016. I left thinking ‘that was fun, but tiring’ and given the competition on research grants, didn’t think much more about it after that. The following February (after a slight delay on the funder’s end) we got the news that the project had been funded!

So in October 2017, Towards a Fire Early Warning System for Indonesia (ToFEWSI) officially started. Led by Allan Spessa (University of Swansea) and Muhammad Ali Imron (University of Gadjah Mada) this is a multi-disciplinary, multi-sector project that develop and deliver an operational early warning system for fire risk in peatlands. It will be developed and tested in Riau province, where many peat fires occur and led to transboundary haze and pollution issue with neighbouring countries (e.g. Malaysia, Singapore). Details of the project team and funding can be found on UKRI website – http://gtr.ukri.org/projects?ref=NE%2FP014801%2F1

There has been a lot of activity so far on the project including development of modelling tools and extracting suitable Earth Observation datasets. At EGU 2018 myself and George Petropoulus presented a poster giving an overview of the project.

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Gareth Clay and George Petropoulus presenting ToFEWSI poster at EGU 2018

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Poster in more detail (please ignore any typos!)

So that’s it for now for the update on this project. More to come over the coming years including fieldwork in Indonesia!

Ida Pfeiffer Visiting Professor at the University of Vienna

Yet again, I’ve managed to leave the blog for far too long. I’m going to try and sort out some updates for my various projects I’ve mentioned previously (St Helena, Hong Kong) over the coming weeks, as well as some new projects I’ve been working on over the past 6 months or so.

However, the biggest research news is that I’m off on research leave for 6 months from June – in Vienna! I’m taking up a visiting position at the University of Vienna from the 1st June in the Faculty of Earth Sciences, Geography and Astronomy to develop new collaborations, conduct some exciting teaching and meet loads of new people. I’ll be hosted in the Department of Geography and Regional Research with my colleague Prof Stephan Glatzel where I hope to be learning a great deal from him and his Geoecology research group, and meeting many others from across the Department and Faculty.

Portrayal of travel author Ida Pfeiffer (1797–1858), published 1861 (Source: Wikipedia, hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c08109, Library of Congress, Public Domain)

The position, Ida Pfeiffer Professorship, is named after the inspirational 19th century female explorer Ida Pfeiffer. At a time when she was unable to undertake academic positions (she was not permitted to join the Royal Geographical Society in London due to her gender), she was boldly travelling the world making important geographical observations. I will be reading up more on her travels and exploits over the coming months, but already I have an image of a tenacious explorer.

More to come over the coming months, but need to start packing…

Hong Kong mangroves

At the end of July, Emma Shuttleworth and I set out on a fieldwork visit to colleagues, Prof Derrick Lai and PhD student Susan Li, at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) to explore new research opportunities between our two Universities. The trip was supported by a grant from the Hong Kong Foundation to allow researchers from CUHK and University of Manchester (UoM) to visit each other to develop new and innovative research agendas. The focus for our visit was to look at the how some of my work on carbon cycling (i.e. oxidative ratio) could be applied to sub-tropical mangroves in Hong Kong.

Coastal mangrove wetlands have a higher rate of carbon (C) sequestration than tropical rainforests, making them a vital ecosystem in efforts to reduce anthropogenic COemissions to the atmosphere. Together with salt marshes and seagrass beds, these coastal ecosystems are collectively termed ‘blue carbon’ sinks. Despite their global significance, there are still many unknowns in these systems (e.g. rate of C loss, organic matter properties), and in many areas of the world, they are at risk of degradation from land-use change and other disturbances.

In order to better plan the research project, Derrick and Susan took us on a tour of their research sites in the Mai Po marshes. The Mai Po marshes nature reserve, a stopping off point for many migratory birds, is a truly spectacular location that has many different ecosystems present, including: mud flats, mangrove forest, tidal shrimp ponds, wet and dry reed beds.  It is also a Ramsar site and protected site of scientific interest.

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Images of the Mai Po marshes. Top left: dense mangrove forests; Top right: open water shrimp pond; Bottom left: floating boardwalk; Bottom right: Eddy covariance tower

The plan is to sample the different carbon pools (e.g. leaves, litter, soil) in the different ecosystems present at Mai Po, to analyse them, using the Geography laboratory facilities at UoM, for their elemental concentrations of C, H, N, O (we’ll also get S at the same time). We will then be able to calculate the carbon oxidation state (Cox) of the organic matter pools, and link to estimates of oxidative ratio (OR) of the different ecosystems. OR reflects the ratio of O2 and CO2 from photosynthesis and respiration in an ecosystem, and it is an important parameter in determining the magnitude of terrestrial C sink of the global biosphere. Recent studies have reported considerable variations in OR among ecosystems such as forests, shrublands, grasslands, and croplands, yet no attempt has been made to quantify OR in mangroves.

The proposed research will not only report on OR variation within mangroves, but we hope to link to ongoing research at CUHK in estimating the complete carbon budget for a mangrove ecosystem. As yet, there are few studies that look at the contemporary carbon budget of mangroves, and fewer still that look at both gaseous and fluvial carbon flux pathways. By linking carbon budgets and Cox/OR properties, we hope to be able to better understand organic matter cycling in these fragile ecosystems. To date only one study (Worrall et al., 2017) has been able to combine a well constrained carbon budget with estimates of Cox/OR, and this was in a blanket peatland catchment in northern England. We hope that the work in the mangroves of Hong Kong will be able to demonstrate the usefulness of Cox/OR as a novel way of looking at organic matter. 

We also discussed the potential to look at how much pollution is stored in the mangroves and whether this storage is long-term, or transitory. Using sediment-source fingerprinting techniques, we may also be able to trace the sources of the pollutants – are they sourced from Hong Kong rivers, or from the larger Pearl river to the northwest?

The trip wasn’t all about work, and we managed to have a few days exploring the city and all it has to offer, including Victoria Peak, the Big Buddha and Temple Street Night Market. Derrick and Susan did a great job hosting us whilst we were there, taking us to a number of really great restaurants and generally showing us around.

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Research Group Meal. Gareth Clay and Emma Shuttleworth (far left), Derrick Lai (centre purple shirt), Susan Li (far right)

Timetable

  • Autumn 2017: Derrick and Susan will collect samples from the mangroves and ship them to the UK for analysis. 
  • Winter 2017/18: Lab analysis in Geography labs at UoM
  • Spring – Summer 2018: Visit to UK by CUHK team, write up of work in peer-reviewed journal and development of future grant applications.

Upper North Grain weather record

Finally the Upper North Grain weather record has been published in the journal WeatherIn the paper, we outline the challenges of keeping a long-term meteorological record in often challenging upland conditions. By gap-filling from nearby stations we were able to fill in the blanks and complete the record for Jan 2004 – Dec 2013.

In addition to presenting the record, we were able to look at seasonal extremes at the site. Four seasons stand out for this site: summer 2006, winter 09/10, summer 2012, and spring 2013.

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Seasonal temperature and precipitation deviations. Top panel: (a) spring, (b) summer. Bottom panel: (c) autumn, (d) winter.

 

 

St Helena: Fisher’s Valley soil core

This week I was finally able to start work on processing the soil cores taken back in January on my fieldwork to St Helena. Its taken a while to get to them, partly due to teaching commitments, but also we’ve finally had our laboratories licences by DEFRA to handle soil samples from overseas. A long slog for the lab team, but I’m very grateful for their due diligence.

First task, get the samples onto the Geography laboratories shiny ITRAX core scanner. One of only three UK-based scanners, this is a fantastic resource for staff and students alike. It took a few days to scan the full ~90cm of the core at 200μm width intervals, but the data it will provide will be enormously useful in understanding chemical and structural changes in Fishers Valley. This will help us to better understand the sedimentological and geomorphological processes operating in this area over recent decades and centuries.

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Fishers Valley core on the ITRAX core scanner.

In the coming weeks we’ll be analysing the data from the cores to look at transitions and changes in elemental properties. We’ll be making use of some of Tom Bishop’s handy software and code to wrangle the data into order.

The next step has been to sub-sample the core for pollen identification.

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Pollen sampling

Rob Banham (MSc EMMR) is working on the cores this summer as part of his dissertation project. Rob will be looking to see if we can identify significant changes in the vegetation assemblages in this valley in recent centuries. Much of the island’s endemic vegetation has been lost over the centuries due to land clearance by early sailors and over-grazing by goats left by these settlers (see here for more details).

The problem is that we don’t have many written records of the island’s vegetation, certainly in the first two centuries after discovery, so it is hard to piece back what was once there. There has been a great deal of work in looking at piecing this puzzle together (notably Quentin Cronk, the Ashmoles, and work of organisations like the St Helena National Trust), but this work will add the latest analytical approaches to the existing chronology of the island’s vegetation.

I’m hoping to get a couple of radiocarbon dates for this core as well as some elemental analysis (carbon, nitrogen), but more on that as it progresses.

An exciting time in the coming month!

 

Post-trip reflections: St Helena life

Its been just over two weeks since I landed back in the UK, fresh from an adventure of a lifetime, and the island still manages to be a large part of my life. Just yesterday I was talking to a colleague (over the morning ritual of fighting with the photocopier ahead of lectures!) about the challenges associated with the airport and ongoing issues therein.

Afterwards it got me thinking about my time on the island (and indeed on the RMS St Helena) about how much I had been welcomed by people on the island. Right from the get go the accommodation I was staying in, Coles Courtyard, allowed me to meet people from around the world. The four apartments on the ground floor are let through the National Trust for visitors and volunteers at the Trust. The communal kitchen facilitated sharing of experiences (and food!). Thanks to Belinda, Sidonie, and Harry for sharing their time and for all the great evening meals and conversations.

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Coles Courtyard (St Helena National Trust rentals)

Invitations to people’s BBQs, boat trips and birthday meals were very kind and great to share in.

Although this was a research visit with fieldwork and necessary outcomes, the social life and ability to absorb the ways of life on the island, were truly fantastic. The friendly waves of passing cars or the ‘hello’ passing on the streets was refreshing (little of that back in the UK!).  I don’t think there are many places that after only a few weeks you can capture such a sense of place and community. I shall definitely be returning before too long!!

The chance to embark on a geographical expedition of this nature rarely comes around but I am grateful to the Royal Geographical Society for providing the funding for the project. It is not just funding that makes a trip like this work and I am indebted to everyone I met on the island and for sharing so generously their thoughts and ideas about environmental research on the island. Particularly I’d like to thank Rebecca Cairns-Wicks at St Helena National Trust for hosting me and introducing me to the many dedicated people working to preserve and improve the valuable environments on St Helena

Other bloggers

I was only on the island for two weeks and from the first day I knew that this wouldn’t be enough time. My observations and thoughts on the island will emerge over time as I reflect further on the experience. For more long-term reflections and personal experiences on the island I would recommend you check out other bloggers living and working on St Helena:

Voyaging Victoria (http://www.voyagingvictoria.com/index.php/category/st-helena/ )

Two Years in the Atlantic (https://twoyearsintheatlantic.com/)

Post-trip reflections: fieldwork

So I didn’t quite manage to keep up with the blog whilst I was on St Helena – something I’m sure to do with the amazing scenery and people to keep me away from the Internet (or the low speed internet and limited WiFi spots!) – but here are some updates from the latter half of the research visit.

Field sampling

One of the main aspects of the field visit was to collect some soil samples from across the island to look at carbon storage in these environments. I managed to visit more sites than I had originally intended hopefully allowing a range of pilot study data for follow on work.

Millennium Forest

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One of the key locations of interest was the Millennium Forest where the St Helena National Trust is carrying out essential restoration work to replant native endemic species. I was interested in extending an earlier soil survey taken by Shayla Ellick who did her MSc thesis on the site. Here we revisited some of Shayla’s sites sampled a few years ago where the focus was on the older stands of gumwoods (planted around 2000).

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Older gumwoods

We then extended the sampling into a block that had been more recently planted (within past 6-8 years) and from under a wider range of trees (including ebony and boxwood) and understorey.

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More recent planting

Hopefully this will allow a more detailed understanding of the soil carbon storage at the Millennium Forest. The samples will be analysed for their carbon contents as well as other variables (e.g. nitrogen).

Fishers Valley

Before heading to the island, we decided that it might be an idea to bring along a soil corer in the hopes of being able to capture past environmental changes on the island. Whilst this took up a good chunk of my baggage allowance (!), it was worth the effort as I was able to take some additional soil cores. One of the locations suggested was in Fishers Valley. Here just to the SE of Longwood House and near to the airport, is a small wetland area providing a habitat for a range of flora and fauna including the endemic wirebird.

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View looking up Fishers Valley. Land is also used as pasture for the local farming syndicate (commons)

We managed to get a 95 cm core from the site which will hopefully allow us to look at past environmental changes. We will utilise the new iTRAX core scanner in Geography at the University of Manchester to look at the subtle changes in elements down the core. We will also try to extract pollen to reconstruct the vegetation assemblages of the past.

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Cox’s Battery

In a similar vein to the Fishers Valley sediments, it was suggested that I might like to target some alluvial sediments near to Cox’s Battery. The extent of the Great Wood on the eastern side of the island is not known, but approximate extent can be roughly mapped. This valley drains the land where the Great Wood is thought to have been so hopefully we might be able to pick up a signal of this preserved in the sediments.

Diana’s Peak

Finally, a trip up in to Diana’s Peak afforded me the opportunity to explore some organic-rich soils under tree ferns and flax.

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Interviewing

As part of the visit a key activity was to get to know the various stakeholders around the island working on environmental issues and to build relationships for future work and collaborations.  Part of this was done informally through meeting people over coffee or BBQs, but a more formal part was through interviews with a range of organisations on the island.

Whilst only an initial set of conversations they will help my colleague, and Co-Investigator, Chris Perkins and I explore some of the value placed on the environment by different organisations.  In total we have nearly 4.5 hours worth of material to transcribe and analyse. In total we have nearly 4.5 hours worth of material to transcribe and analyse.

Overall

In the end the trip was highly productive and has generated lots of potential follow on work with the chance to generate action on the ground for the benefit of local communities. Now just have to get processing the samples…

 

 

 

 

End of Week 1 in St Helena

Its been over a week on St Helena and I’m finally getting to grips with the island heat (just about!) and working out where everything is in Jamestown (not that big but I keep missing certain shops!).

I’ve so far managed to collect soil samples and cores from;

  • Millennium Forest (surface soil samples): exploring the carbon storage in the soils and vegetation to hopefully feed into local carbon offsetting schemes or environmental responsibility schemes.
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    Millennium Forest gumwoods

    Fishers valley: soil core from wetland area

  • Diana’s Peak: soil samples and short cores from under flax and tree fern

Also have been networking with various stakeholders across the island exploring the challenges in environment field on St Helena. This will form the basis of future funding applications and research directions.

Only a few days left now before departing on the RMS next Tuesday so hopefully will be able to get all the work done!

I’ll upload further photos later in the trip when I have a speedy internet connection!